DUE: THURSDAY, December 5 (by midnight via Canvas)

Format: 2½–3 pages, 1” margins, double-spaced, 10-12 pt font. Please do not add a cover sheet. Simply include your name, course number (AIS 320), and Essay 1 at the top of the page (either centered or adjusted left).

Also, no secondary sources are required. You need only refer to the reading assignments (and lectures, when appropriate). However, whenever you cite or quote from your textbook, The American Indian Intellectual Tradition, please state the page number in parentheses at the end of your citation or quotation. For example, “William Apess brings up the issue of a disputed deed to Marshpee land, which he makes the central part of his argument to the Massachusetts General Court that the state is responsible for redressing the Marshpee’s grievance against Phineas Fish (64-65).” Furthermore, whenever making a direct quote from the book, quotations should be brief, a sentence or two at a time. Please avoid using lengthy block quotes.

Instructions: Referring to the chapters assigned in The Sacred Hoop by Paula Gunn Allen, namely chapters 1-6, 8, 10, 12-14 answering the following questions.

In chapters 1-3, explain the relationship between the feminine origins of Creation (chapter 1) and the traditional leadership roles of women in Indigenous governance (chapter 2), and how women were disempowered by the colonizers (chapter 2), such that we have the lives of Indigenous women described in chapter 3.

In chapter 4, how does Allen define “ceremony,” complete with at least two examples, then how is this definition applied to at least two of the American Indian writers and novels that she talks about in chapter 5. In turn, how does Allen understand the concept of alienation in the American Indian experience, as described in chapter 6?

Lastly, in chapter 14, what does Allen mean by the “red roots” of “white feminism,” and what does it have to offer American society and gender relations?

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