Response one: Osteoporosis is a condition that often weakens bones over time, which can drive to them being destroyed easily. While some risk constituents cannot be changed, the modifiable risks factors that can assist in stopping osteoporosis in childhood and adolescence involve have a nutritious diet with enough calcium, avoiding protein malnutrition and undernutrition, keeping an sufficient supply of Vitamin D, engaging in daily physical activity an bypassing the effects of second hand smoke (Preventing Osteoporosis, n.d.). In adulthood, people can eat a nutritious diet with sufficient calcium intake, avoid undernutrition which involves severe weight-loss diets and eating disorders, sustain an adequate supply of vitamin D, participating in regular weight-bearing activities, avoiding smoking and second-hand smoke and avoid heavy drinking (Preventing Osteoporosis, n.d.). Both women and men can have this disease, although it is most common in older women (Osteoporosis, n.d.). Other women with risk factors can include people who have a family history of osteoporosis, broken a bone after the age of 50, had surgery to evacuate ovaries before their menstruation ended, had early menopause, doesn’t have enough calcium and/or Vitamin D, had extensive bed rest, are physically inactive, smoke, take medications that include those for arthritis, asthma, and certain cancer drugs, use certain medicines for a long time and have a small frame (Osteoporosis, n.d.).
Nurses can help direct subjects with osteoporosis to save their optimal health through knowledge about their diet, training, and safety. The essential nutrients for patients with osteoporosis to have are calcium, which is a key for building bone strength and vitamin D, which helps the body to absorb calcium, and it is best to get it through food and supplements if necessary. The nurse can educate their patients about foods good for calcium and vitamin D, which include milk, yogurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables, and cereals. The patient should also be instructed about practicing as much as they can undergo preventing their bones from crumbling. Safety and fall prevention is also essential because a person with osteoporosis is at higher risk of breaking their bones, and the patients should be aware and precautious of their surroundings.
Osteoporosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/osteoporosis
Preventing Osteoporosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.iofbonehealth.org/preventing-osteoporosis
Response two: I just love the commercials that advertise for osteoporosis medications, especially the post menopausal women fixing to trip. The ad pauses asking are you ready? No one is ever ready for a bone fracture. Osteoporosis is porous bones. “Some risk factors cannot be changed” while others can be changed (NIH, 2018). Sex, age, body size, ethnicity, and family history cannot be changed. Sex hormones, anorexia nervosa, calcium and vitamin D intake, medication use, life style, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake are all changable risk factors. Factors you should consider are calcium and vitamin D intake, exercise, smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption and if you take medications that put you at risk. With Osteoporosis, the bone cannot rebuild as fast as it is loss, this occurs as we age, osteoporosis usually affects postmenapasual women but can affect men. “The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends routine screening of bone mineral density for women ages 65 and older” (NIH, 2012). Medicare will cover bone density every 2 years. Drugs that may increase the risk of osteoporosis are corticosteroids, some anticonvulsants, and aromatase inhibitors. If is important to obtain a baseline dexa scan before treatment begins and at intervals during therapy to evaluate for decline. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation should be recommended along with exercise. One of the toughest interventions for older women to accept is moving furniture or rugs to prevent falls. Decreasing the obstacles that can cause a fall is key to fall prevention. Now that cell phones are all the rage, I encourage patients to keep it on them at all times encase of a fall. The phone is their life line to get help.
NIH, (2018). Osteoporsis Overview. Retrieved from
NIH, (2012). How Often Should Women Have Bone Tests? Retrieved from
Response three: Osteoporosis is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased. The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs after a minor incident such as fall (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 2019). Bone fracture can be caused by a cough or sneeze in osteoporotic bone. Fractures often occur in hips, wrists and spinal vertebrae. If a fracture occurs in vertebrae, it can lead to changes in posture, a stoop and curvature of the spine.
Several risk factors, modifiable factors, such as dietary changes, inactivity and immobility, and non-modifiable factors can increase the likelihood of one developing osteoporosis. A lifelong lack of calcium plays a role in the development of osteoporosis. Low calcium intake contributes to diminished bone density, early bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women (Goldman L, 2016). Also, people who spend a lot of time sitting have a higher risk of osteoporosis than do those who are more active. Any weight-bearing exercise and activities that promote balance and good posture are beneficial for their bones, but walking, running, jumping, dancing and weightlifting seem particularly helpful.
Non-modifiable factors are;
- Gender: Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men.
- Age: The older you get, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. Risk increases after mid 30’s, most especially after menopause.
- Race: White or of Asian descent are at greatest risk of osteoporosis.
- Genetic factor: Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts you at greater risk, especially if your mother or father fractured a hip.
- Body size. Men and women who have small body frames tend to have a higher risk because they might have less bone mass to draw from as they age.
- Low hormone: Lower estrogen level appear to make it harder for bone to regenerate (Goldman L, 2016).
Nurses are instrumental in providing psychosocial support for individuals with osteoporosis. For many, this is yet another chronic condition that they are faced with, leading to anxiety regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Nursing assessment and support assists individuals in maintaining their commitment and compliance to lifestyle modifications and treatment over the course of their lives, and in the modification of approaches as other conditions emerge (Goldman L, 2016). Nurses play a role in enabling individuals to cope with chronic illness through the development of coping strategies and, as required, pain management. With the bone health of individuals being monitored over a longer period of time, as compared with other chronic illnesses, nurses often provide ongoing remote telephone counseling and support, which poses its own unique set of opportunities and challenges.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/osteoporosis/overview. May 23, 2019.
Goldman L., eds. Osteoporosis. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com.
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