Drawing on the assigned readings, lectures, class discussions, films, and any other appropriate sources you may find, in a well-written, coherent essay, using appropriate citations and footnotes if necessary, answer TWO (2) of the following:

A. Drawing on at least THREE different regional examples (China, India, Southwest Asia, Mediterranean World, Europe, etc.), explain the role of religion in the historical development of civilizations in Eurasia and Africa between the 7th and the 17th centuries A.D. How did religious developments relate to the Insecurity Index? How did relations between religious establishments and governments affect both? How did nomadic invasion affect religious doctrines and policies – and vice versa? How did developments, i.e. changes over time, in the major religious traditions affect the particular civilizations you are discussing – politically, socially, economically and culturally? As always, be specific and give appropriate examples to illustrate your arguments! [HINT: Depending on your regional examples, you should be discussing developments in Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Daoism, and/or Islam, and the major civilizations they affected. Also, remember that “development” implies change over time – in other words, be sure to explain how the various religions themselves evolved and why.]

B. Giving explicit examples, and drawing on at least THREE different regions (Europe, Central Asia, Southwest Asia, South Asia, East Asia and Africa) explain how the interactions between nomadic/migratory peoples and sedentary peoples affected the major civilizations of Eurasia between the 1st and the 15th centuries A.D. Be sure to explain not only political, but also social, economic, intellectual and religious consequences of such invasions. [HINT: Depending on your regional examples, you should be discussing Germans, Huns, Hsiung-Nu, Arabs, Vikings, Turks, Qidan, Ruzhen, and/or Mongols, etc.]

C. Explain the role of technological innovation in the internal economic, political, and social development of at least THREE different major regional civilizations between the 10th and the 16th centuries A.D. How did such technological developments change power relations among the different civilizations, and what were the consequences? As always, be explicit in your arguments and support them with specific examples. [Hint: be sure to consider both land-based and sea-based technologies.]

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