Please help me answer two discussion posts below.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which was created in 1967 to promote intergovernmental cooperation and facilitating economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia. ASEAN can be best explained by the liberal school of thought. Countries form an association with a purpose to ensure unity is enhanced as an overall strategy for investing. Security of a nation is established when countries form an association with clear objectives to promote trade. Trade and investments lead to the creation of jobs that would ensure citizens can sustain their lives. Stability is enhanced as citizens are satisfied with the available social structure of the society among ASEAN countries. Leadership among member states ensures policies are drafted to benefit the ASEAN associations. ASEAN member states wanted to exploit the resources and market value provided with the member states hence the need to create an association with drafted policies.
The best theory that explains the creation of ASEAN is the theory of liberalism which states that peaceful cooperation can help mitigate some of the effects of an international system that can lead towards anarchy and national ambitions. A good example is the role ASEAN played in helping to mitigate the ongoing tension between Japan and China over Japanese atrocities committed against China by Japan in World War II. In this case, ASEAN in its role as moderator was able to bring these nations together through third party mediation which enabled both nations to save face and focus their efforts on economic progress not military competition. This promotion of regional stability through multiple levels of co-ordination and partnerships at the expense of nationalistic ambitions is a deep reflection of the type of liberalism embraced by ASEAN nations in its efforts in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. As ASEAN has migrated from a regional organization that rarely even met in the first decade of its existence to expanding its influence well beyond its original membership, this successful expansion can only be achieved through the utilization of deeper integration. “After 1997 ASEAN held regular summits with China, Japan, and South Korea in an arrangement termed, unimaginatively, ASEAN plus Three (APT).” (Jones and Smith, 2007, 148).
Given the theoretical approaches we have read, ASEAN members are likely to pursue deeper integration in the future. Integration into the future will be pursued to ensure the region is prosperous. Benefits to citizens will be attained once member countries are united on the cause to ensure economic potential is exploited across member states. Social structure among member countries will be enhanced once there is continuity of membership in ASEAN. Deeper integration will also ensure countries remain open to opportunities within the current dynamic economy. Policies fronted with member states will address regional stability to uplift citizens from poverty that has been witnessed in the past dispensation. Deeper integration in future will be pursued to stabilize the ASEAN association from external threats. These threats can emerge from non-member states that seek to exploit resources at the expense of member countries. Survival of the ASEAN association will be attained once the level of trusts goes an extra mile hence the desire to accomplish a deeper integration process. The countries with focus shape the society aspirations. Association among member countries should be of mutual benefit to assure survival (Sehgal, Pandey, and Deisting, 2018).
By working together ASEAN members have achieved greater economic growth which has been reflected in greater cooperation not only among themselves but the international community as well. “Their economies have been boosted by the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement and by ASEAN’s free-trade agreements with other major economies such as China, India, Japan, and South Korea, as well as Australia and New Zealand” (Mahbubani and Tang, 2018). The introduction of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 was a clear indication of their desire to achieve greater integration as part of the growth of the ASEAN community. “The formal establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), as part of the ASEAN Community in 2015, marks an important milestone in ASEAN economic integration agenda” (ASEAN, 2019). This movement towards a reduction of trade barriers such as tariffs and an increase in open markets is an indication of greater economic integration. Economic prosperity and future growth depends upon success in other fields such as the promotion of greater cultural and diplomatic ties which has also been promoted by ASEAN members. As they work together to promote regional aspirations that are in alignment with national goals, it is a clear indication that since its inception, ASEAN members have been on a path towards greater integration and cooperation. Deeper integration will be pursued with member countries on a quest to ease trade and investments. The cause that will ensure the creation of ASEAN is fully exploited is enhanced with deeper integration in the future. Challenges that will be developing will require deeper integration to create lasting solutions. Investors will be motivated to gain confidence once deeper integration is enhanced. Investor’s confidence leads to increased productivity as capital is injected with expected certainty in returns.
ASEAN Thailand, 2019. “ASEAN Secretariat, ASEAN Economic Community”. Jan 2018, Accessed 4 December 2019, https://www.asean2019.go.th/en/abouts/ประชาคมเศรษฐ…
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 1 Jan 2019, Accessed 4 December 2019, https://asean.org/asean/about-asean/history/
Jones, David Martin, and Michael L. R. Smith. 2007. “Making Process, Not Progress.” International Security 32 (1): 148–84. doi:10.1162/isec.2007.32.1.148.
Mahbubani, Kishore and Tang, Kristen. 2018. “ASEAN: An Unexpected Success Story”, The Cairo Review of Global Affairs, Accessed 4 December 2019, https://www.thecairoreview.com/essays/asean-an-une…
Sehgal, S., Pandey, P., & Deisting, F. 2018. “Stock market integration dynamics and its determinants in the East Asian Economic Community Region”. Journal of Quantitative Economics, 16 (2), 389-425.
Question 1 for post 1
Could the promotion of an economic integration also lead to a more solid political unity among ASEAN states?
Moreover, how would the promotion of an economic integration influence political identities of ASEAN member states?
We are looking at joint arrangements such as regional integration we are looking at what I believe to be the future of the international political scene. The Power Politics theory states that there will always be nations such as the United States and either Russia or China who will be the largest powers in the world. These powers will dominate not only the global political spectrum but also the economic spectrum as well. Because of the power these nations hold on the global scale there is little that many of the other nations around the world are able to do. This great gap between the nations especially those that are smaller and have smaller economies has given little options but to join forces to limit their vulnerabilities. This is one of the driving forces behind the ASEAN. As many of the smaller Asian nations have felt the brunt of having to take on many of the larger economies.
As China has expanded it reach throughout much of Asia and the globe, smaller Asian nations are becoming increasing concerned for their own security. In regional expansion reminiscent of Japanese expansion prior to World War II, the Chinese have cause growing concerns around the globe. Even with support from the United States and other nations many of the Asian nations began to band together to create a more stable region with which to combat Chinese expansion. In this situation, regionalization makes the most sense as it averts much of the reliance on outside support and overall empowers the region. I believe regionalization is a situation that we will continue to see throughout many of the smaller less economically powerful regions around the globe. One region that would greatly benefit from regionalization would be within the African continent. As many of the nations here have fallen to troubled pasts such as colonialism and ethnic conflict that has left them far behind the rest of the global community. With regionalization established, many of these nations would be able to revitalize their own economies and establish a power that would be able to stand on par with the United States, China, and Russia.
Overall the future of regionalization and with it groups such as ASEAN, the EU and NAFTA look to be the way of the future in terms of international politics. The benefits to such a commitment far outweigh the pros that would be associated with them. As global economic powers such as the United States continue solidify their economic powers, the ability of individual nations to grow from their lower situations to meet those economic powers will become lower and lower. Regionalization seems to be the only way that many nations will be able to level the playing field.
Question 2 for post 2
Are there also constructive benefits for ASEAN states to develop collective policies? Does the promotion of regional integration have any particular impacts on domestic politics of ASEAN states?
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