1. The interdisciplinary approach to the study of hominins, including their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, and habitats is known as _____.

a. forensic anthropology

b. ethnography

c. ethnology

d. paleoanthropology

e. primatology

2. DNA-level polymorphisms reveal that humans evolved from living chimpanzees.

a. true

b. false

3. Compared to the Neandertals and other late archaic humans, modern humans generally have more delicate skeletons, their skulls are more rounded, and their brow ridges protrude much less.

a. true

b. false

4. The fact that Homo sapiens still exist while Homo neanderthalensis became extinct is evidence that natural selection always favors the strong over the weak.

a. true

b. false

5. Each hominin species evolved unique morphologies as they adapted to their environments; most evolutionary theorists do not intend to conceptualize modern Homo sapiens as the apex (highest point) of evolution.

a. true

b. false

6. Some 19th and early 20th century paleoanthropologists attempted to find a “missing link” among living human populations, an example of scientific racism.

a. true

b. false

7. Although not all paleoanthropologists agree, current evidence suggests that the earliest anatomically modern fossils of Homo sapiens are from which geographic region?

a. South America

b. East Africa

c. North America

d. Central Asia

8. Some paleoanthropologists have proposed that all living people can be traced back to a group of African women (or a single woman) who lived about 200,000 years ago by analyzing mitochondrial DNA. This woman, or women, is referred to as ___________.

a. mitochondrial Pandora

b. mitochondrial Hawwa

c. mitochondrial Eve

d. mitochondrial mother

9. Analyses of variations in the DNA of the Y chromosome and chromosome 12 show the greatest diversity among Africans today, which suggests that humans evolved in Africa.

a. true

b. false

10. Evidence of early symbolic behavior among humans have been found in sites throughout Africa and Europe.

a. true

b. false

11. Types of Upper Paleolithic art include __________. (check all that apply)

a. sculptured figurines

b. hieroglyphics

c. cave paintings

d. engravings

12. The regional continuity model for the evolution of Homo sapiens suggests ________. (mark all that apply)

a. none of these

b. there was considerable gene flow between local hominin populations

c. modern populations’ differences in physical characteristics are deeply rooted

d. Neandertals were the ancestors of modern Europeans

13. The replacement model for Homo sapiens evolution hypothesizes that modern humans evolved in Africa and migrated into the rest of the world, replacing all earlier populations.

a. true

b. false

14. Because the growing fossil and DNA evidence does not fully support either the replacement model or the regional continuity model, some paleoanthropologists have developed a third hypothesis known as the _______________.

a. Visual Predation hypothesis

b. Bottleneck Model

c. Assimulation (Partial Replacement) Model

d. Grandmother hypothesis

e. Arboreal hypothesis

15. “Biodiversity” is the totality of all living things, from bacteria and fungi, to trees and humans.

a. true

b. false

16. According to Jurmain, et al (Lessons from the Past, Lessons for the Future powerpoint) humans have had profound effects on the Earth’s ecology, including __________. (mark all that apply)

a. loss of biodiversity

b. clearing of woodlands

c. reduction of frontier forests

d. climate instability (global warming)

17. Consequences of modern technology that are menacing to human life include ______. (mark all that apply)

a. deforestation

b. loss of biodiversity

c. nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons

d.depletion of the ozone

18. Which of the following statements is false?

a. The U.S. produces 25 to 30 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions.

b. The U.S. has the highest birth rate in the world.

c. For all people on the planet to match the consumption levels of the United States, we would need four more planets.

d. The average American consumes 400 times the resources of the average Bangladeshi.

19. According to Jurmain, et al (Lessons from the Past, Lessons for the Future powerpoint) what is the one single challenge facing humanity to which most other human problems can be tied?

a. overpopulation of humans

b. loss of biodiversity

c. acidification of oceans

d. climate instability

e. social inequality

20. The scientific community is in almost complete agreement that we are seeing the effects of climate change due to human activities.

a. true

b. false

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